To autumn – the lusty song of fruits and flowers

Images from out in the woods, from the garden and even along the margins of the roads, all reflecting the harmony of colours, shapes and textures that autumn brings, were flashing through my mind when cleaning fruits today.  Such an easy way to go into a lyrical mood…(I’ll keep it short ;)

“O Autumn, laden with fruit, and stained
With the blood of the grape, pass not, but sit
Beneath my shady roof…
………………………………………
Sing now the lusty song of fruits and flowers”.

                                           W. Blake – To Autumn

 

Friday’s seeds – or is it a fruit? Triosteum

Sometimes we refer to ‘seeds’ without actually realizing that we are talking about the fruits.
This is the case of dry fruits like achenes, caryopses, samaras…, which tightly enclose the seed(s) and it would be practically impossible/or at least highly impractical to try to ‘extract’ the seeds.

So, why do we care if we sow seeds or fruits?
Knowing that we actually handle fruits, helps understanding why certain treatments are needed for the storage/germination process. Also, because in these cases we cannot see the actual seeds, we only make the assumption they are inside the fruit and will germinate in due time. Which perhaps they will, but sometimes there is no one there to do it!
To understand what I mean, you can have a look back at two notorious examples:
False assurance – Linnaea borealis
The Beauty and the Parthenocarpy – Acer triflorum

In the Caprifoliaceae family there are also species with dry fruits which we treat as seeds, like Morina and Triosteum. In both cases, they have hard teguments which play a role in retarding/obstructing the germination.

I wanted for a long time to have a closer look at Triosteum aurantiacum. I found no reliable info regarding its germination but someone who bought ‘seeds’ few years ago got back to me saying that by filing the fruits tegument, followed by GA3 and/or cold-moist stratification obtained good results.

So, I placed the fruits in warm water for a few days in an attempt to soften their teguments before I proceed to dissections. In Triosteum – and I refer here to Triosteum aurantiacum – the fruits resemble coffee beans, and only by looking at them one can imagine it will take a lot of time for them to disintegrate naturally in the soil.

Even after keeping them in water for few days I had to use a cutter to slice through them. The wall of the fruit is extremely thick and the seed is fused to it.
Here’s a plate showing the whole story in pictures:

I managed to extract one seed intact – inside, the embryo is invisible with the naked eye because of underdevelopment, pointing to the requirement of at least one period of cold/moist stratification.

This is a Triosteum aurantiacum SEED

Conclusion: these are the options to hurry up the germination for Triosteum – first, by filing the hard tegument with a metal file almost until reaching the seed, followed by cold/moist stratification 3 months.

Second, by nicking the end of the fruit (I used this myself for T. pinnatifidum), followed by cold/moist stratification for a few months. In this case, take care not to harm the seed when nicking the end and best to keep the fruits in water for a few days to somehow soften them.

A suplimentary GA3 treatment coupled with the cold/moist stratification may have some effect or not; I will try it this winter and we’ll know for sure.

About Morina next time…

 

 

 

September Newsletter

Bits of this and that from what’s happening right now.

Flowering wise

Many of the late summer/fall flowering species are now in bloom in the garden and elsewhere but nothing says September better than Gentiana andrewsii; everyone is in love with it! Another beloved gentian, Gentiana cachemirica, is reaching towards the end of flowering and the capsules look promising.
Talking gents (I already divert…) Gentiana cruciata seeds from my own production (mother plants were grown from wild collected seeds) are almost ready.
In the woods and margins of the roads, the goldenrods are ‘shining’; also the first Aster species and the turtleheads (Chelone) are in bloom.

Gentiana andrewsii

 FRUITS and SEEDS wise

Lindera benzoin, the spice bush, fruits are beginning to change colours and gradually they will all become deliciously red. By the look of them, collecting will happen somewhere at the end of September. Last year’s moist seeds have germinated in late spring by 100%.
Because the seeds require moist storage, they are not collected in large quantity unless pre-ordered. More will follow about Lindera – a most useful, shade tolerant small shrub/tree for part shaded/sunny and preferably moist areas. Most important – it is the favourite larval host for the Spicebush swallowtail and Promethea silkmoth!

Lindera benzoin

At this time of year it is a pleasure to go hiking in the woods, with many colourful fruits beckoning in the woodland filtered shade: red Jack in the pulpits (Arisaema triphyllum), golden mayapples (Podophyllum peltatum), bluish Medeola, dark-red Aralia racemosa, Euonymus obovatus….to mention just a few.

Also, various native dogwoods are getting towards their fall display with foliage and fruits changing colours. Cornus rugosa and Cornus alternifolia seeds can now be found in the Shop.

 

Back home, a few days ago I managed to painfully extract a few seeds from the prickly dry stems of Morina longifolia. You can read more about this super cool, thorny species by clicking on the name. Selecting Morina seeds, gave me the idea for a Friday’s seeds post which will focus on Caprifoliaceae (including Triosteum) – in the works…

Celebrate Canada 150 – Seeds Sale  category has seen new additions: Dictamnus albus and Teucrium canadense. Also, everyone can still take advantage of Asarum, Sanguinaria and Trillium moist packed seeds!

Peony species seeds will soon be available and the time is right for them to form roots, if sown immediately. This way, the first leaves will grow next spring; otherwise they need two years for complete germination.

Please keep an eye on the Seeds List, during the fall it gets updated every few days.

Meanwhile, if someone has any seed-related questions or wishes to pre-order fall collected seeds, please don’t hesitate to ask using the Contact form.

Enjoy the bountiful of flowers, fruits and seeds September brings!

My thanks and best regards to all,
Gabriela

Out in the woods – a zen moment

Those following my blog know my penchant for zen moments…

Even with insects –
some can sing

some can’t.
Issa

 

Moist packing – what’s that?

As I was packing seeds today, I thought that maybe some people who never bought or they buy for the first time moist packed seeds may wonder what they would get.

Sometimes I get questions as well, so although I have shown pictures in previous posts, it is good to tell again. There is no secret; seeds that are known to be hydrophilic (to make a long story short – these are seeds which need to be sown right away after collecting or if not, kept moist to preserve their viability), are cleaned from the fruits and stored in slightly moist vermiculite in Ziploc bags. And no, there is no need to spray the seeds with anything chemical.

For shipping, the portion of seeds is placed in smaller bags with a bit of the moist vermiculite (*exception for US orders, when the seeds are are packed with a piece of moist paper towel). These seeds are to be sown right away after receiving.

Asarum canadense moist packed seeds for shipping

These small bags are not intended for storing the seeds long term! (I know someone tried to do that, that’s why I mention it). If you really want to keep the seeds longer, and /or provide stratification in the fridge instead of sowing, you need to transfer them in larger bags with added moist vermiculite (slightly moist peat works as well).

Very small seeds, like those of Coptis shown in the picture, are easily sown by spreading the content of the bag on top of the potting mix (no need to pick the seeds from the vermiculite). Even larger seeds are better sown this way.

Coptis trifolia moist packed seeds

In case of hydrophilic seeds, if kept dry they will either not germinate at all, or will germinate poorly/over a longer period of time. Keeping them moist and allowed the required cycles that mimic the natural conditions will result most times, in 100% germination in the spring. It is a lot of extra work but worth doing it.

Thank you! – Merci! to all our customers

 

Back with more seeds

I’m back and guess what? – I brought more seeds :)
We cannot remove/transport plants but, no worry they are contained within the seeds: tiny capsules of time and memories, of new places, mountains and blue skies…
A gallery with few images for now, there will be plenty of time for stories when days are getting shorter.

All available seeds, including more local collections will be added to the Shop over the next couple of weeks. Please stay tuned…

Last minute seeds collecting and away on holidays

Good news for those who pre-order, I did a last minute seeds collecting and cleaning  of Trillium grandiflorum! In case someone doesn’t notice the banner on the front page and stumbles on the blog here:

The Seeds Shop and all other activities, except seed collecting :) are suspended until August 10!

It is preferably to not place orders; if it happens, don’t worry, shipping will resume after August 10.

To quote John Muir – “The mountains are calling and I must go”. I’ll be back….

 

Friday’s Seed – Jeffersonia diphylla

During a visit to the Aspen Groves Gardens to leave a few of my ‘precious’ seedlings for babysitting, I have also been ‘presented’ with nice, fresh and fat seeds of Jeffersonia diphylla :)

The seeds don’t keep very well in moist storage and I will be trying a new method this year, but you may never know how it goes…I recommend to those who have been waiting for it, to get hold of the seeds right now (orders are accepted until July 12th, then the Shop will be closed till August 10th).

All you need to know is here: http://botanicallyinclined.org/growing-jeffersonia-from-seeds/

Jeffersonia diphylla, Twinleaf; few seeds still attached to the fruit wall.

Jeffersonia diphylla seeds – 1 mm grid

 

And btw, those living in driving distance from Guelph, Ontario – this Saturday, July 8, Aspen Grove Gardens of Robert and Judy Pavlis are open for visiting from 10 am- 4 pm.  Don’t miss the opportunity!

Read more and see pictures here: http://www.robertpavlis.com/aspen-grove-gardens/

 

Note: Besides sowing fresh or moist kept seeds, I emphasize again the requirement for good germination.

Baskin & Baskin have shown that ripe seeds of Jeffersonia diphylla have an underdeveloped embryo. Seeds need high summer temperatures (30˚C) in order for the embryo to develop optimally and reach at least one mm in length before dormancy can be broken by cold stratification. If this requirement is not met, another warm/cold cycle is required by the seeds to germinate.

Jeffersonia diphylla two-year old plant

In straight line with ‘canadensis’

A last announcement because we enter a straight line towards the celebrations – Sanguinaria canadensis and Asarum canadense freshly collected seeds are on sale (!) for a limited time and while quantities last, of course.

Need to read more about growing Sanguinaria from seeds? – read HERE.

Sanguinaria canadensis seeds

As I said, for this special occasion the celebration will last all season long! More species will be added to the list depending how well the seeds collecting goes.

This is the Canada 150 Celebration Seeds sale list for the moment – take advantage, some items are already getting low in stock ;)

Happy Canada Day!

Out in the woods

Sanguinaria capsules were not ready to collect as I thought, but  everything looks green and lush which is very good news after last year’s terrible drought. Medeola, Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense), Cornus rugosa and Viburnum acerifolium were flowering; Lonicera canadensis berries were beckoning in the filtered shade and Mitella seeds were ready, waiting in their little cups. About Mitella I knew because I have it in the garden ;)

Mitella diphylla – Two-leaved bishop’s mitre; combines beautifully with Uvularia (in the background), Trillium, Thalictrum dioicum, Hepatica and many other species which like part-shade locations.

It has been added on the Canada 150 Celebration list sale!